Chinese Translations? Talk to the experts! At Pangeanic you will find a fully professional Chinese translations, a fast translation service in the format you need at excellent prices. With offices in Shanghai, Pangeanic will use its experience in translating millions of words into Simplified Chinese and Traditional Chinese for institutions, research centres, departments, companies and corporations worldwide.
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Our team has accumulated decades of experience in translation, including millions of words translated from English, Spanish, German, French into and out of Simplified Chinese (Mandarin) or Traditional Chinese for multinational corporations worldwide. Our experience in multilingual translation projects provides a unique experience that ensures fast translation services at competitive prices.
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From a single MS OfficeTM file for the translation from Spanish, English to Chinese, or the way round, to processing InDesign files, FrameMaker, po formats, html, xlsx., Odt, etc., Pangeanic will provide an efficient and economical solution for your translations.
Pangeanic B.I Europa can also act as an internationalisation consultant with regard to your inbound and outbound internationalisation efforts with China. We work with our associate Chinese translation and internationalisation team in Shanghai on a daily basis, offering you a one-spot, knowledgeable, customised solution for your specific market penetration and expansion across borders between China and the UK.
Characteristics of Chinese
In China there are about eight different linguistic groups that together represent hundreds of dialects and their variants, which in most cases are not mutually comprehensible. Even so, the standard Chinese is recognised as Mandarin Chinese, it is the most widespread Sino-Tibetan language among the languages of Asia, which became popular during the Manchu dynasty in Beijing (see more details below).
In terms of speaker populations, Chinese is a language of the Sino-Tibetan family spoken in China, Taiwan, Malaysia and other parts of Southeast Asia, as well as by lots of Chinese communities present worldwide.
The history of Mandarin Chinese
A largely diffused adaptation as to the origin of the term “Mandarin” originates from the Hindi word “mantri” which means “counselor” or “minister of state”, which was then passed to the Malaysian word “mantri” and finally to the Portuguese adaptation “mandarim.” Once diffused into Portuguese, it was quickly assimilated into other European languages.
This word made its way to the Portuguese vocabulary due to the Chinese- Portuguese trade relations in the early seventeenth century. Portuguese traders could only deal with Chinese officials from the Chinese imperial government. Like this, the Chinese population was kept protected from the diffusion of foreign customs. It was thus that the language used by the officials who ruled was known as “Mandarin” (in Portuguese “mandarim”) in the West.
Chinese is certainly a language with ancient origins. In fact, the history of the Chinese language can be classified into the following stages:
- Archaic Chinese (14th to 11th cent. B.C.): the language of oracular inscriptions on bones and tortoise shells. The oldest inscriptions are from the Shang Dynasty (c. 1400-1100 a.), and have been discovered in the ancient capital, Anyang, and some other places. There are about 2,000 characters that have been identified, which represents a much higher figure of words. Keep in mind that the Shang Dynasty characters are polyvalent, depending the meaning on the place and function in pronunciation.
- Classic Chinese (Wenli – 11th cent. B.C. to 8th cent A.D.): top stage in Chinese language and literature. Strictly speaking, the term Chinese refers to the Chinese language and literature from the 6th cent. B.C. to the 3rd cent. A.D., including the lives and works of Confucius, Mencius, Lao Tzu, Han Fei, Mo Tzu and Chuan Tzu, to name just six sagas of philosophers who had a powerful Chinese afterthought. In a broader sense, the classic Chinese term begins with the Shih Ching (‘Book of Odes’), compiled between the 11th and 6th centuries B.C., and one of the ‘Five Classics’ (wu jing), being the other four as follows: I Jing, or ‘Book of Changes’, Shu Jing, or ‘Book of History’, Li Ji or ‘Property Book’; Chun-Chiu or ‘Book of the Spring and Autumn Annals’.
After the Burning of Books by Emperor Qin Shi Huang Di (231 B.C.), the classic texts had to be painstakingly rebuilt in the early years of the Han Dynasty, whose alignment with Confucianism determined the direction of Chinese literature over the centuries. There were three crucial factors for Confucian hegemony: the sanctity of the classic texts, the research system based on these texts and their commentaries, and the supremacy of the writers who would explain the classics and determined the research. Besides this, especially in the Tang and Sung Dinasties, poets emerged that produced some of the most attractive works of art in the world.
- Modern Chinese, which retains essentially the vocabulary and morphology of classical Chinese in its later stage, but was enriched and adapted for use in modern society. During the Sung-Yuan Dynasties (XII-XIV d. C.) the ‘speak easy’, Báihuà, which was a Chinese way closer to the spoken language than Wenli literary style, was first used for literary purposes, e.g. in the prose passage of the Yuan drama. Baihua was also the vehicle for narrative prose of the great Ming novels such as ‘The Dream of the Red Chamber’.
After the fall of the Manchu Dynasty and the establishment of the Republic in 1911, both the movement for standardisation of the national language and the replacement of Chinese writing by another alphabetic character become extremely important. Both steps were regarded as indispensable for universal education in China; a key role in this was played by the cultural revolution known as the Movement May 4, 1919 and the implementation of proposals for a national language made first by Hu Shih in the pages of ‘New Youth’ Ching Xin-nian newspaper. Finally, in 1949, Baihua, now known as Putonghua or ‘common language’, was officially adopted as the national language of the Republic of China.